September Eleven

A Resource Page

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What

When

Numbers


Causes

Reactions

News

Personal

Multimedia

War


References

An Endnote

Update

Foreword

This document was created to serve as a resource page for this Nation's terrible tragedy of September 11th (the year is unnecessary). Such events are unimaginable, and thus incomprehensible at first. Yet we must understand this event in order to take the necessary and sufficient steps that will preclude anything like this from happening again. If there was any good that derived from this tragic event, it is that we have witnessed once again bravery, courage, and selflessness by the everyday citizens in our great Nation.

We, practically everyone in the civilized world, knows what happened on September 11th. What very few know is why. Consequently, the goal here is to provide credible resources for anyone who wants to take a wider view of this tragedy, as well as the complex and enduring events leading up to it. Use the menu on the left to guide you to the sections of this document, and then use the small blue up arrows to return to the menu.

With deepest sympathy for the innocent victims and their families.


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"Terrorism has become the systematic weapon of a war
that knows no borders or seldom has a face."
Jacques Chirac, Premier of France, September 24, 1986.

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What

The twin towers known throughout the world as the World Trade Center, in the center of Manhattan in New York City, were destroyed by terrorists who hijacked commercial airplanes as part of a devious plan to strike at the heart of America. Two hijacked planes were flown into the twin towers about 15 minutes apart, each exploding like a mobile inferno that no life could survive. Moreover, another hijacked plane was flown into the Pentagon in Washington D.C. A fourth hijacked plane crashed into the ground in rural Pennsylvania:

  • American Airlines flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center.
  • United Airlines flight 175 crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center.
  • American Airlines flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon.
  • United Airlines flight 93 bound for San Francisco, crashed in Pennsylvania.

In total, 266 passengers, pilots and crew died as a result of these four hijackings on the morning of September 11th. As of Sunday, September 15, 2001, New York City estimated that 5,097 people in the complex were missing. As of October 1, 2001, figures showed 5,219 victims missing at the trade center -- down more than 400 as cross-checking eliminated duplications. Officials said 314 bodies had been recovered, with 255 identified. Still later, on October 9th, the number reported missing dropped to 4,815 with 417 confirmed deaths. ( Source).

  • Buildings collapsed:
    • One World Trade Center
    • Two World Trade Center
    • Marriott Hotel
    • Five World Trade Center

  • Buildings partially collapsed:
    • One Liberty Plaza
    • Four World Trade Center
    • Six World Trade Center

  • Buildings with major damage:
    • East River Savings Bank
    • Federal Building
    • 90 West Street
    • Bankers Trust
    • N.Y. Telephone Building
    • One World Financial Center
    • Two World Financial Center
    • Three World Financial Center
    • N.J. Kalikow Building and Millenium Hotel
    • St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church
WTC complex

Pentagon image

WTC Source Pentagon Source

At the Pentagon, located in Arlington, Virginia across the Potomac River from Washington, the plane slammed into a newly reinforced part of the building that is used by Marine Corps Aviation and Army personnel for offices. More than 20,000 military and civilian personnel work in the Pentagon. Yet....(see Garamone, 2001).

Why The Towers Fell provides useful links and a video based on "forensic engineers during their in-depth investigation of the precise causes of the Twin Towers' collapse."

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When

On Tuesday morning, September 11th:

  • 8:45 a.m.: American Airlines flight 11, a Boeing 767, crashes into the north tower at the 85th floor of the World Trade Center in New York City.
  • 9:03 a.m.: United Airlines flight 175, crashes into the south tower causing a devastating explosion.
  • 9:10 a.m.: President Bush, in Florida, is reading to children in a classroom when his chief of staff, Andrew Card, whispers news of the attacks into his ear.
  • 9:20 a.m.: The FBI investigates reports of planes being hijacked before the World Trade Center crashes.
  • 9:30 a.m.: President Bush declares: "We have had a national tragedy. Two airplanes have crashed into the World Trade Center in an apparent terrorist attack on our country."
  • 9:43 a.m.: Abu Dhabi television reports it received a call from the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine, claiming responsibility for crashing two planes into the WTC. Later, leading officials would deny the claim.
  • 9:43 a.m.: Another plane crashes into the Pentagon in Washington, D.C. The center of the U.S. military bursts into flames and part of one side of the five-sided structure collapses.
  • 9:49 a.m.: All airports across the U.S. shut down.
  • 10:00 a.m.: United Airlines Flight 93, en route from Newark, N.J., to San Francisco, crashes near Pittsburgh.
  • 10:05 a.m.: The south tower of the World Trade Center collapses as the world watches on T.V. in disbelief.
  • 10:28 a.m.: The north tower of the World Trade Center collapses creating chaos and despair.

In less than two hours, this nation lost pilots, crew, men, women, and children passengers, military officers and enlisted, DOD employees, fire, police, and EMS personnel, and untold workers and visitors at the WTC. A more extensive Timeline of America's day of terror is provided by the BBC.

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Numbers

The numbers (Finch, 2001, and others) from this event are staggering:

  • The total number of people (children, parents, siblings, friends, co-workers, neighbors, etc.) who lost their lives or are still missing is 6,867. When compared to the 4,808 people lost at Antietam on September 17, 1862, or the 2,390 who died at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1942, the enormity of this event takes focus.
  • Sixty-one other nations have reported missing people, the largest number from the United Kingdom (250). This was a crime against humanity, not just the U.S.
  • It has been reported that about 23 percent of us tried to reach someone that day to see if they were safe.
  • Terrorism is not new:
    • From 1968 until 2000, there were 4.957 terrorist attacks against the U.S.
    • We lost 854 people due to those attacks.
    • Worldwide, during that same time frame, there were 14.039 terrorist attacks, resulting in 10.614 deaths.
  • The impact on our economy has varied greatly. The total financial damage estimate is $70 billion, which can be compared to the $44 billion associated with the Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1994.
  • Yet, the rank order for selected item sales increases are: Flags (+1,632 %), Gas cans (+895%), Antennas (+400%), etc.
  • The airlines announced layoffs totaling 73,000.
  • Of the 2,617 death certificates filed for the victims through January 25, only one in three victims of the World Trade Center attack has now been identified source.
  • "As of Monday, Aug. 26, 2002, the revised total of 2,819 includes 1,364 victims positively identified by forensic means, such as fingerprints, dental records and DNA. In addition, 1,364 have been formally declared dead despite a lack of remains (Channel 3000).

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Causes

Human nature seeks the causes for events. Without understanding the causes for significant events, we feel powerless and hopeless. By understanding the cause, we contain the seed for change. However, anything this complex has multiple causes, and therein lies the major challenge for our National leadership. Below are various views about the causes of this tragedy, grouped into External and Internal sources:

External:
  • Blowback: "Since its creation in 1988, Osama bin Laden has controlled Al-Qaeda. As such, he is both the backbone and the principal driving force behind the network" Janes Security, July 26. The counter point is provided by Peter Beniart.
  • Canadian Border: "Canada's lax immigration and refugee laws make it easy for extremists to set up shop north of the border, say Canadians and Americans who have studied the issue."
  • Why Root Causes are Important: Submitted to the Toronto Globe and Mail, September 23rd.   A reply.
Internal:
  • Advice Ignored: how we "passed on recommendations by a bipartisan, Defense department-ordered commission on domestic terrorism."
  • Foreign Policy: "over the last fifty or so years. I've heard estimates of forty thousand dead - you got off pretty lightly, considering the crimes against humanity perpetuated by your nation."
  • Foreign Policy: "Poll finds U.S. Muslims lukewarm on war effort. Majority believe changes in U.S. foreign policy could have prevented Sept. 11."
  • Intelligence Failure: "In Congress, members with oversight of the intelligence apparatus are ready to grill officials to find out whether they missed signs of the attacks." See also here.
  • Here is Jerry Falwell's apology report from ABC News.
  • Video Games: "One of the small issues is that users of Microsoft's Flight Simulator game will no longer be able to crash a simulated 757 into a realistic graphic of the World Trade Center."

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Reactions

Any catastrophe of this size creates implications and reactions that are seldom discussed in concert. Below are some of the more atypical reactions, from both extremes:

  • Someone named Ali created a movie that is linked below in "Multimedia." Here are her words. "When I put together the movie "America." it never occurred to me that anyone other than the people I originally sent it out to would want to view it~ I am not the type of person to "hype" her work or think of what I do as anything more than average. Most people don't realize that the web site owner is responsible for paying the bandwidth when it exceeds the amount allowed on a server. Most of the time, even sites that have a fair amount of traffic rarely use more than 10 gigs of bandwidth in a month, but so many people went to see "America" that by Wednesday night, less than 48 hours after I had first sent an email to my personal list, over 200 gigs of bandwidth had been used. Although I do not blame anyone, the fact is that I have lost 2 of my web sites because of this, one of which was my missing child's domain name and the other my card site, which was there is an outstanding bandwidth bill of almost $2,000 which I cannot afford to pay. Since my sites were removed, I have spent the better part of the last 2 days trying to find alternatives. Although there were many generous offers, my concern has been that I do not want the same thing that has happened to me to happen to someone else. I have written to many organizations asking for help without much success. It seems that the main problem is that the movie has no commercial value." Note: she did find a place for that movie.
  • "Afghanistan's hardline Taliban rulers condemned the attacks and rejected suggestions that Bin Laden was behind them, saying he does not have the means to carry out such well-orchestrated attacks. Bin Laden has been given asylum in Afghanistan."
  • "Most of the America-despising left has fallen silent since Sept. 11. But not all." (Charen, 2001).
  • "Following the unprecedented terrorist attacks on the United States today, web users turned en masse to search engines for information." (Sullivan, 2001).
  • Yet many hoaxes flowed across the InterNet. To check a rumor, see Snopes (2001) in the Reference section.
  • "Long-distance, local and wireless carriers struggled to cope with unprecedented call volumes yesterday in the wake of the U.S. attacks. Telecom companies reported between two and 10 times the number of phone calls made on an average Tuesday, and between the hours of 9 a.m. and 12 noon many customers encountered busy signals, dead air or taped recordings saying the circuits were overloaded and to try later. Cingular Wireless reported the number of attempted calls ballooned by 400% in Washington, DC and 1,000% in its New Jersey switching center. AT&T said its network handled, on average, four million calls every five minutes, while Verizon Wireless was forced to move in portable cell antennas to boost network capacity. Meanwhile, customers of VoiceStream, which is one of the few U.S. wireless companies to use the GSM mobile standard, were able to contact friends and family using text messaging, which was unaffected by call volumes and network outages" (Financial Times 2001). See also Dickinson (2001) and Spring (2001).
  • In the West Bank city of Nablus, thousands of Palestinians celebrated the attacks, chanting "God is Great'' and handing out candy. Children celebrated openly in the streets.
  • "On a day of national mourning and prayer, a Boca Raton company had its managers confiscate some American flags from employees' cubicles, saying other workers might find them offensive" (Galewitz, 2001).
  • "Groups of online vandals and hackers are split over how to respond to this week's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon" (Lemos, 2001).
  • "Gas station owner apologizes for $7-a-gallon price" (Seattle Times, 2001).
  • A New York City teen relates, "A few moments later, [his] teacher frantically rushed into the room. "She told us to turn off the television," he said, observing that his teacher was in a state of shock." (Stames, 2001).
  • "I won't be selling anything," Buffett said straight out, which is how the prescient Oracle of Omaha says most things." (Henican, 2001).
  • "[H]ardly had the World Trade Center fallen than everyone from insurance companies to porn sites, with a fair smattering in between, was trying to make a buck off the suffering of others" (Coursey, 2001).
  • "Asked at a press conference on Monday for his view of the events, Stockhausen answered that the attacks were "the greatest work of art imaginable for the whole cosmos." (Spinola, 2001).
  • "For the first time in the short history of the Internet, popular search engines report that "sex" dropped off their lists of top 10 search terms in the days following the attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon." (Orr, A, 2001).
  • "Those who were cheering belonged to the elite of the Paris of Middle East: professionals wearing double-breasted suits, charming blond ladies, pretty teenagers in tailored jeans" (Burba, 2001).
  • One "radio network is recommending its stations not play "lyrically questionable" music and has issued a list of 150 songs it says should be off the air for the time being" (Wolf & Marino, 2001).
  • "Before the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, Nino's was just another Italian restaurant/bar on bustling, immigrant-filled Canal Street, a working man's hangout that owner Nino Vendome describes as serving "wholesome food at a fair price in a clean environment. That's all." Yet it has been open 24/7 feeding the firemen, police, volunteers, for free (Jubera, 2001).
  • "re:constructions represents the work of students, staff, faculty, and friends of MIT's Program in Comparative Media Studies. It is not the work of an academic department. It is the work of a community which felt it had to do something to make a difference. We study media and so this is what we had to contribute" (re:constructions, 2001).
  • Someone named Steve from New York City said, "Due to the tremendous demand that this page has created, the bandwidth has gone through the roof. As I understand it, the normal traffic for my entire Internet Provider is 10bps per month. This page is drawing 45 bps per day and I had to move them again. I am going to start listing mirror sites on the www.powforum.org/wtc site so that in the event I go down again, the page can still be viewed. Hopefully that will solve the problem. This has been a work-in-progress and began the day after the attack at the World Trade Center and Pentagon. I survived the attack itself by being late to work that day, but I lost many people who were not so lucky. I created the page to honor those I lost, those that America had lost and all of those dedicated, caring human beings who responded to this wanton cowardly act and who we refer to simply as heroes. To help sustain our nation resolve while we respond to this horrific attack. Images of that day are burnt into my soul that I will never forget. Images that no one should ever see. My soul aches....God bless America and keep her FREE. Steve Golding." (See America Attacked 911 below).
  • "The "Star Spangled Banner" is too patriotic, divisive and political, so organizers of UC Berkeley's day-long tribute to the victims and heroes of 9-11 are excluding it" (Sexton, 2002).
  • Some 6,000 photographs and slides were found in the 1.8 million tons of debris taken to a landfill in Staten Island to be sorted. Employees at Kodak and NFL Films have been scanning the photos onto computers -- after hours and on their own time." (Sporting News, 2002).

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News

Unlike any time in history, the minute by minute news was made available by radio, TV, and most importantly, on the InterNet. On Tuesday morning major "news sites (CNN, FoxNews, MSNBC, YahooNews, and ABCNews) were slowed down, as were the sites of the airlines involved in the disaster, American Airlines and United Airlines. Statistics from Keynote Systems, which monitors Web performance, give some indication of how various sites were able to cope during the day: Nytimes.com, 9 a.m. 0% availability, 10-11 a.m. 43% availability; ABCNews.com, 9 a.m. 0% availability, 11 a.m. 5% availability; USAToday.com, 9 a.m. 18% availability (took 47 seconds to connect); MSNBC.com, 9 a.m. 22% availability (38 seconds to connect); CNN.com, 9-10 a.m. 0% availability" (Hu & Sandoval, 2001).

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Personal

Any catastrophe of this size speaks with many voices. Below are some of the more poignant:



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Multimedia

The world, including the U.S.A., has created some appreciative and memorable web pages. Below are just a few that are worthy of your time, and estimated download times are provided in seconds for 56k modems:

Multimedia from News Amateurs:
  • America: This movie, created by Ali, could take as much as 20 minutes to load. Yet many people will think that it is worth it. See her comment above in the "Reactions" section. Additional sites include: Site 1   Site 2
  • America Attacked 911: "THIS is what our Nation is responding to. Please remember that in the difficult times ahead."  Actual voice quotes included within a stirring video (several minutes). Alternately found at Site 1,   Non Enya version,  . Note: A large list of sites can be found here.
  • America in Pictures & Music: This is an impressive site of touching pictures and music (5 seconds). Another site is here.
  • From Atlanta: A collection of words, pictures, and music from several people, plus additional links (375 seconds).
  • From Max: "an anonymous worker in the WTC, apparently using a web-cam on a notebook computer. The pictures start with tourist views of NY before turning into chaos, showing workers hurrying down the stairs to escape while firemen rush up to deal with the emergency (45 seconds).
  • God Bless the U.S.A.: Inspirational graphics and the song "God Bless The USA" sung by Lee Greenwood (120 seconds).
  • I Am The Flag: Inspirational flag graphics and the a series of songs (45 seconds).
  • Rest in Peace: A poetic tribute to all life lost that day (10 seconds).
  • Send a multimedia 911 Tribute greeting card: in 8 easy steps. (5 seconds).
  • "Thank You World" is a 28 picture, five page Word document (about 980 KB).
  • The World Mourns the Tragedy of September 11, 2001: photos from around the World (15 seconds).
  • We Are All Americans: a large collection of photo and thoughts from everywhere (30 seconds).
  • WTC Tribute: a very nice video selection of pictures, or you can download the Flash file. There is a section which shows the number dead or missing with each country flag (85 seconds).
Multimedia from News or Promotional Sites:


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War

There are few universals over place and time, and one of them is war. From the annals of recorded words, starting with Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey, about 800 B.C., to today's conflicts in Ireland, Korea, Russia, and others, most people live in times of war. Here are a few perspectives about war, then and now:

  • 1000 Years of Bloodshed: "A chronology of some of the major wars over the last millennium."
  • Afghanistan: A Battleground Through the Ages: "It is a country that has humbled three empires, yet Afghanistan has few natural resources and is wreathed in poverty."
  • America at War: a chilling look into the enemy by Andrew Sullivan who says, "In one brilliant stroke, the enemy has shown that the way in which America had come to defend itself is completely obsolete."
  • America will not live in peace: This is a transcript of Osama bin Laden's statement on October 7, 2001 where he divides the world into two camps, the camp of the faithful and the camp of infidels.
  • A New War and its Scale: "A principal option is to intervene militarily in Afghanistan's civil war on the side of the Taliban's foes: the beleaguered rebel alliance that claims just a sliver of Afghanistan's territory."
  • Al-Qa'ida (the Base): From 1979 to 1998, the forces against Jews and Crusaders has grown and gathered momentum.
  • Crisis Puts New Focus on 'Stans: We will need new partners in Central Asia, and almost no Americans know these five countries.
  • Don't fight the last war: An analysis and "10 points that are being neglected and virtually never mentioned in the hours of coverage."
  • Rumors of War : An indexed set of links discussing the various rumors to come out of the September 11 terrorist attack.
  • The Coming War: A look back to 1998 at the war on terrorism then using more than 70 Tomahawk cruise missiles against the Sudan and Afghanistan.
  • The Kamikaze Factor: "There was nothing high-tech about this week's suicide attacks. Their terror was psychological, not technological."
  • The World at War: A list of current conflicts around the globe.
  • War on Terrorism at a Glance: Including links and Terror Attack Statistics.


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"The ultimate weakness of violence is that it is a descending spiral, begetting the very thing it seeks to destroy. Instead of diminishing evil, it multiplies it... Through violence you may murder the hater, but you do not murder hate. In fact, violence merely increases hate.... Returning violence for violence multiplies violence, adding deeper darkness to a night already devoid of stars. Darkness cannot drive out hate; only love can do that."

- Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

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References & Resources:

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"Once more unto the breach, dear friends, once more;
Or close the wall up with our English dead!
In peace there's nothing so becomes a man
As modest stillness and humility:
But when the blast of war blows in our ears,
Then imitate the action of the tiger;
Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood,
Disguise fair nature with hard-favored rage;
Then lend the eye a terrible aspect."

William Shakespeare (1564-1616)
King Henry the Fifth, Act: III, Scene: i, Line: 1

  



An Endnote

THE FIREMAN

Gloria Nagy

A big man, husky you might say
Stands in a doorway his strong face sealed.
Feelings beyond expression, beyond words
Flicker behind his tired eyes.

A hero now, that an act of madness has exploded
The armor from our souls.
Before that, he was mostly invisible
As he walked steadily
Among the movers and shakers,
Whizzing past him with their shiny briefcases and polished shoes
Doing the work valued by the metropolis
Commerce, control, celebrity.

Unheeded except in moments of chaos and need
A house on fire; a screeching cat trapped in a tree
Living by a different code of values
Walking his own path.

Not that he was perfect, heroes are human, too
He had problems in his family, in himself
But even the most flawed of his brothers
Had the straight-spined dignity of purpose
Of pride.

A small child stands in front of a television
Talking to no one
If the bad men come to my house
I'll poke them with a stick.

The child and the man in the doorway
Clearing the rubble of reality maintaining
The innocence of trust.

Not that it was always easy to hold his course,
While the minions rushed back and forth
Yelling into tiny devices, buying and selling the universe.

He had responsibilities, mortgages to pay
Aging parents, children to raise.
But this was a calling, not even a choice.

If the bad men come to my house
I'll poke them with a stick
The child says again, to no one in particular.

The bad men are at the world's house now
And the man in the doorway is our Guardian.

   



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This page was created on Sunday, September 16, 2001, and revised on Saturday, September 7, 2002.
Copyright © 2001. All rights reserved.
Selected reports suggested by Dr. John Levine and Dr. John Mueller are gratefully acknowledged.
This page contains about 7,000 words, 2005 links,
and will take about 45 seconds to download at 56k.

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Update


This section provides the findings from the September 6, 2002 update.
The following links, in alphabetical order, are no longer active or are misdirected:

  • A New Mindset for Warfare: "In June 2000, the U.S. military completed the last in a series of futuristic experiments called Rapid Decisive Operations (or RDO for short)." (Source: Washington Post).
  • Additional sites include: Site 2 Source: (mackstep.com).
  • Afghanistan: Global news stories up to recent events from the World Reference Desk. (Source: travel.dk.com).
  • America Attacked: Video and Audio: links from the Los Angeles Times. (75 seconds)
  • America in Pictures here. Source: (Member pages at http://home.wi.rr.com). (
  • America's tragedy is felt by all the world...: "a truly stunningly magnificent website with scores of emotionally moving color photographs of human responses to the attack of 9/11, gathered from around the world--a surprising number of countries." (300 seconds) (Source: stonekitty.net).
  • Bauschard, S. (2001). Researching Terrorism and the U.S. Response: a large list of bombing research materials. (Source: Secondarysources.com).
  • Can't Cry Hard Enough: A video Tribute to the Victims of September 11 by Webgroup Media + EverythingWebDesign (10 seconds).
  • David Handschuh, a free lance photographer, says that he, "just won the power-ball of life." So Glad to be Alive, September 15. (Source: unknown).
  • David Maraniss. Thousands' Workday Turned Surreal. Washington Post Staff Writer. Sunday, September 16, 2001; Page A1. "Steve Miller was just then getting off the subway at the Fulton Street exit in Lower Manhattan. The digital clock on the side of the Century 21 building read 8:09." (Source: Washington Post).
  • Enter the minds of those who live there: Do You Know the Way to Paradise?, The Volunteer, and The Zealot. (Source: petermass.com).
  • Galewitz, Phil (2001). NCCI pulls workers' flags Palm Beach Post, September 15. (Source: gopbi.com).
  • Here is Canada's view (Source National Post).
  • Jubera, D. (2001). Italian restaurant keeps kitchen open in N.Y. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, September, 23.
  • Orr, A. (2001). News, Nostradamus Knock Out Sex in Cybersearches. excite News, September 19. (Source: Excite.com).
  • Proud to be an American: photos and patriotic response links (70 seconds). (Source: intdg.com).
  • Rare Photos. "These photos were taken by a guy named Rich Yako, who was working with the NYPD ESU in the crater of the South Tower, World Trade Center on the day of the incident....They will take a long time to load, but they are dramatic, and well worth viewing" (No longer working but here is an alternate site of 19 thumbnails (25 seconds), or start at the first photo (10 seconds)). (Source: sbccomputer.com).
  • Root Causes: "Which cause do you root for?" National Post, October 4.
  • Speech and Transcript Center: Gary Price's compilation of speeches and transcripts from U.S. and international government leaders continues to develop. (Source: George Washington University).
  • Some Americans: Pat Robertson and Jerry Falwell said we got what we deserve due to "pro-choice supporters, non-Christians, feminists, gays and lesbians." (Source: About.com).
  • Terrorism: Online resource guide by York University.
  • Terrorist Networks: "U.S. memo warns of more attacks." September 20. (Source: InfoSpace.com).
  • The New Face of War: Just three years ago, the new face of war was called cyberterrorism. Here Amara Angelica also describes our infrastructure vulnerabilities. (Source: TechWeek.com).
  • US Develops Picture of Overseas Plot: "The hijackings have led to arrests on every continent but Antarctica." (Source: Washington Post).
  • View a USA Today graphic of All four flights.
  • Yoo, J. C.. (2000). U.N. Wars, U.S. War Powers. University of California at Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall), April 4-5.

Although 199 links had no errors, what may surprise you is the presence of the
Washington Post, USA Today, and two universities on this list.
Apparently some of the media have yet to identify a way to serve
readers and those who document their written work.
  
   


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